Revisiting the schoolhouse: A literature review on staffing rural, remote and isolated schools in Australia 2004-2016

Keywords: teacher attraction and retention, rural and remote school staffing, rural school leadership, rural teacher preparation

Abstract

The staffing of rural, remote and isolated schools remains a significant issue of concern in Australian education.  In this paper we provide a comprehensive account of the Australian research related to the staffing of rural schools post 2004.  The review identifies the overarching themes of the opportunities and challenges of staffing rural schools, pre-service teacher preparation, and leadership. Within these there are numerous sub categories such as the policy setting, incentives, understanding place, mentoring, professional development, and teacher education.  Overall the review identifies that the issues explored in the research literature between 2004 and 2016 are similar in character to those examined prior to 2004.  As such we raise the question of, if we have such a well-developed knowledge of matters related to rural school staffing, why does it remain an ongoing issue? While this review does not seek to answer this question, it provides an opening for discussion by identifying and describing the research on issues, and approaches, in the staffing of rural, remote, and isolated schools to date.

Author Biographies

Natalie Downes, Faculty of Education, Science, Technology and Mathematics, University of Canberra

Research Assistant

Faculty of Education, Science, Technology and Mathematics, University of Canberra

Philip Roberts, Faculty of Education, Science, Technology and Mathematics, University of Canberra

Assistant Professor (Curriculum Studies)

Faculty of Education, Science, Technology and Mathematics, University of Canberra

References

References
Adie, L., & Barton, G. (2012). Urban Pre-service Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching in Rural
Communities. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37(6), 111-123. http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2012v37n6.7
Anderson, M., & White, S. (2011). Resourcing change in small schools. Australian Journal of
Education, 55(1), 50-61.
Beutel, D., Adie, L., & Hudson, S. (2011). Promoting rural and remote teacher education in
Australia through the Over the Hill project. International Journal of Learning, 18(2), 377-388.
Boylan, C. (2011). Staffing rural schools: A new perspective. In G. W. Luck, R. Black & D. Race
(Eds.), Demographic Change in Australia's Rural Landscapes (pp. 329-351). The Netherlands: Springer.
Campbell, A. M., & Yates, G. C. (2011). Want to be a country teacher? No, I am too
metrocentric. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 26(4), 1. Retrieved from http://jrre.psu.edu/articles/26-4.pdf
Country Education Project. (2010). Rural New Graduate Survey, August 2010, Report. Retrieved
from: http://cep.org.au/files/2010/12/New-Graduate-Survey-Report-2010-final.doc
Clarke, S., & Stevens, E. (2009). Sustainable leadership in rural schools: Selected Australian
vignettes. Journal of Educational Change,10, 277-293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10833-008-9076-8
Clarke, S. & Stevens, E. (2006). Spatial engagement: The navigation of a novice teaching principal
in a small rural community. Studies in Learning, Evaluation, Innovation and Development, 3(1), 12–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10833-008-9076-8
Clarke, S., Stevens, E., & Wilde, H. (2006). Rural rides in QLD: travels with novice teaching
principals. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 9(1), 75-88. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603120500471958
Clarke, S., & Wildy, H. (2004). Context counts: Viewing small school leadership from the inside
out. Journal of Educational Administration, 42(5), 555-572. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09578230410554061
Cornish, L., & Jenkins, K. (2015). Teaching Principals: The ‘I’s Have It!. In L. Graham & J. Miller
(Eds), Bush Tracks: The Opportunities and Challenges of Rural Teaching and Leadership (pp. 135-156). The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
Drummond, A., & Halsey J. (2013). How hard can it be? The relative job demands of rural, regional
and remote Australian educational leaders. Australian Journal of Education, 57(1), 19-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0004944112471604
Drummond, A., & Halsey, J. (2014). Rural leadership preparation associated with higher job
satisfaction. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 24(3), 43-48.
Ewington, J., Mulford, B., Kendall, D., Edmunds, B., Kendall, L., & Silins, H. (2008). Successful
school principalship in small schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 46(5), 545-561. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09578230810895483
Frid, S., Smith, M., Sparrow, L., & Trinidad, S. (2008). An exploration of issues in the attraction
and retention of teachers to non-metropolitan schools in Western Australia. Education in Rural Australia, 18(1), 20–29.
Gilbert, C. C., Skinner, J., & Dempser, N. (2008). Expectations of successful female small school
principals. Leading and Managing, 14(1), 72-91.
Graham, L., & Miller, J. (2015). A model for collaborative research. In L. Graham & J. Miller (Eds.),
Bush Tracks: The Opportunities and Challenges of Rural Teaching and Leadership (pp. 1-10). The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
Graham, L., Miller, J., & Paterson, D. (2009). Early career leadership opportunities in Australian
rural schools. Education in rural Australia, 19(3), 25-34.
Graham, L., Miller, J., & Paterson, D. (2015). Accelerated leadership in rural schools. In L. Graham
& J. Miller (Eds.), Bush Tracks: The Opportunities and Challenges of Rural Teaching and Leadership (pp. 91-104). The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
Green, B. (2008). The NSW Rural (Teacher) Education Project: Introduction and overview. In B.
Green (Ed.), Spaces & places: The NSW Rural (Teacher) Education Project, (pp. 1-26). Wagga Wagga: Centre for Information Studies, Charles Sturt University.
Green, B., & Novak, M. (2008). Staffing and the Provision of Quality Teaching in Inland Rural
NSW. In B. Green (Ed.), Spaces & Places: The NSW Rural [Teacher] Education Project (pp. 61-120). Wagga Wagga: Centre for Information Studies, Charles Sturt University.
Green, B., & Reid, J-A. (2004). Teacher education for rural-regional sustainability: Changing
agendas, challenging futures, chasing chimeras? Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 32 (3), 256–273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1359866042000295415
Green, N., Noone, G., & Nolan, A. (2013). Contemporary paradigms of rural teaching: The
significance of place. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 23(1), 91-115.
Gregory, S., & Crossley, S. (2009). Growing GRaSS in the drought. In State Government Victoria,
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, Willing to Lead (pp. 27-40). Victoria: School Workforce Reform and School Improvement Division, Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/staffdev/schlead/Willing_to_Lead/Willing_to_Lead_-_Leading_Across_Effective_Schools.pdf
Halsey, J. (2005) Pre-service country teaching in Australia: What’s happening – What needs to
happen? A report on the size, scope and issues of pre-service country teaching placement programs in teacher education in Australia. Rural Education Forum Australia. Retrieved from: https://www.flinders.edu.au/ehl/fms/education_files/coreacom/Publications/Conference%20Presentations/Pre-service%20Country%20Teaching%20-%20What%20is%20Happening%20-%20What%20Needs%20to%20Happen.pdf
Halsey, J. (2006). Towards a spatial self-help map for teaching and living in a rural context.
International Education Journal, 7(4), 490-498.
Halsey, J. (2009a). Australia’s sustainability: A new policy front for rural education? Education in
Rural Australia, 19(2), 13-24.
Halsey, J. (2009b). Teaching in the country would not be so bad: How much does it cost to find
out? In T. Lyons, J.-L. Choi, & G. McPhan (Eds.). Improving equity in rural education: Proceedings of the International Symposium for Innovation in Rural Education (ISFIRE). (pp. 137-145). Armidale, NSW: University of New England.
Halsey, J. (2011). Evaluation Report, Extended Rural Professional Placement Students, Supervising
Teachers, Placement Principals, Lecturers. Sidney Myer Chair of Rural Education and Communities School of Education Flinders University, Retrieved from: https://www.flinders.edu.au/ehl/fms/education_files/coreacom/Publications/Reports/Evaluation%20Report%20Extended%20Rural%20Professional%20Practicum%20September%202011.pdf
Halsey, J. (2012). Rural pre-service professional placements. Retrieved from:
https://www.flinders.edu.au/ehl/fms/education_files/coreacom/Publications/Submissions/Schools_Workforce_-_Pre-Service_Teachers.pdf
Halsey, J. (2013). Space, spatiality and educational leadership formation for rural contexts.
Leading & Managing, 19(2). 78-87
Halsey, J. (2015). Re-framing the formation of rural educational leaders. In H. Askell-Williams
(Ed.), Transforming the future of learning with educational research, (pp. 182-200). Hershey PA, USA: IGI Global.
Halsey, J., & Drummond, A. (2014). Reasons and motivations of school leaders who apply for
rural, regional and remote locations in Australia. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 24(1). 69-77.
Halsey, J., Drummond, A., & VanBreda, M. (2011). Educational leaders and leadership in rural
Australia: Profiles, Pressure and Priorities. A research report. Retrieved from: https://www.flinders.edu.au/ehl/fms/education_files/coreacom/Publications/Reports/Educational%20Leaders%20and%20Leadership%20in%20Rural%20Australia%20-%20A%20Research%20Report-%20June%202011.pdf
Handal, B., Watson, K., Petocz, P., & Maher, M. (2013). Retaining mathematics and science
teachers in rural and remote schools. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 23(3), 13-28.
Hardy, J. (2015). Affectual Language in Teachers’ Talk. In L. Graham & J. Miller (Eds), Bush Tracks:
The Opportunities and Challenges of Rural Teaching and Leadership (pp. 79-90). The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
Haynes, J., & Miller, J. (2016). Transitioning from university to teaching in schools located in rural
and remote settings. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 26(2), 34-48.
Hazel, S., & McCallum, F. (2016). The experience is in the journey: An appreciative case-study
investigating early career teachers’ employment in rural schools. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 7(1), 17-31.
Heffernan, A., Fogarty, R., & Sharplin, E. (2016). G’aim’ing to be a rural teacher? Improving pre-
service teachers’ learning experiences in an online rural and remote teacher preparation course. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 26(1), 47-60.
Holleran, O., & Newman, G. (2009) Working together because it’s kids who count! In State
Government Victoria, Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, Willing to Lead (pp. 27-40). Victoria: School Workforce Reform and School Improvement Division, Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/staffdev/schlead/Willing_to_Lead/Willing_to_Lead_-_Leading_Across_Effective_Schools.pdf
Hudson, P., & Hudson, S. (2008a) Changing pre-service teachers’ attitudes for teaching in rural
schools. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 33(4), 67-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2008v33n4.6
Hudson, P., & Hudson, S. (2008b, December). Sustainable futures for rural education: Changing
preservice teachers’ attitudes for teaching in rural schools. Paper presented at the Australian Association of Research in Education (AARE) Conference, 30th November - 4th December, Brisbane.
Hudson, S., & Millwater, J. (2009, June). ‘Over the hill’ is not so far away: Crossing teaching
contexts to create benefits for all through rural teaching experiences. Refereed paper presented at ‘Teacher education crossing borders: Cultures, contexts, communities and curriculum’ The annual conference of the Australian Teacher Education Association (ATEA), 28th June-1 July, Albury.
Jenkins, K., & Cornish, L. (2015). Preparing pre-service teachers for rural appointments. Australian
and International Journal of Rural Education. 25(2), 14-27.
Jenkins, K., & Reitano, P. (2015). Teaching Principals’ Stories. In L. Graham & J. Miller (Eds), Bush
Tracks: The Opportunities and Challenges of Rural Teaching and Leadership (pp. 119-134). The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
Jenkins, K., Reitano, P., & Taylor, N. (2011). Teachers in the bush: Supports, challenges and
professional learning. Education in Rural Australia, 21(2), 71.
Jenkins, K., Taylor, N., & Reitano, P. (2015). Listening to teachers in the ‘bush’. In L. Graham & J.
Miller (Eds), Bush Tracks: The Opportunities and Challenges of Rural Teaching and Leadership (pp. 41-55). The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
Kelly, N. (2013). An opportunity to support beginning teachers in the transition from higher
education into practice. In M. Gosper, H. Carter, & J. Hedberg. Proceedings of the 30th Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education Conference (ASCILITE 2013) (pp. 466-470). Sydney: Macquarie University.
Kelly, N., & Fogarty, R. (2015). An integrated approach to attracting and retaining teachers in rural
and remote parts of Australia. Journal of Economic and Social Policy, 17(2), 1. Retrieved f rom: http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol17/iss2/1
Kelly, N., Reushle, S., Chakrabarty, S., & Kinnane, A. (2014). Beginning teacher support in
Australia: Towards an online community to augment current support. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 39(4), 68-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2014v39n4.6
Kline, J., & Walker-Gibbs, B. (2015). Graduate teacher preparation for rural schools in Victoria and
Queensland. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 40(3), 68-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2014v40n3.5
Kline, J., White, S., & Lock, G. (2013). The rural practicum: Preparing a quality teacher workforce
for rural and regional Australia. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 28(3), 1-13. Retrieved from: http://jrre.vmhost.psu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/28-3.pdf
Lassig, C., Doherty, C. A., & Moore, K. (2015). The private problem with public service: rural
teachers in educational markets. Journal of Educational Administration and History, 47(2), 117-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220620.2015.996863
Lester, N. C. (2011). Relationship building: Understanding the extent and value. Education in Rural
Australia, 21(1), 79-92.
Lierich, D., & O'Connor, C. (2009). The effect of fixed-term contracts on rural secondary
teachers. International Employment Relations Review, 15(2), 58-82.
Lock, G. (2008). Preparing teachers for rural appointments: Lessons from Australia. The Rural
Educator, 29(2), 24-30.
Lock, G., Budgen, F., Lunay, R., & Oakley, G. (2012a). The loneliness of the long-distance principal:
Tales from remote Western Australia. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 22(2), 65-77.
Lock, G., Budgen, F., Lunay, R., & Oakley, G. (2012b). Welcome to the outback: The paradoxes of
living and teaching in remote Western Australian schools. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 22(3), 117-134.
Lock, G., Green, B., Reid, J., Cooper, M., White, S., & Hastings, W. (2008, August). Designing a
national research project in rural-regional (teacher) education. In C. Boylan (Ed.), Proceedings from the 24th National Rural Education Conference: The Face of Learning–Generation M: The Mobile Generation (pp. 27-29). Melbourne, Victoria: SPERA.
Lock, G., Reid, J. A., Green, B., Hastings, W., Cooper, M., & White, S. (2009). Researching rural-
regional (teacher) education in Australia. Education in Rural Australia, 19(2), 31-44.
Lyons, T. (2009). Teachers’ motivations for working in rural schools. In T. Lyons, J-L Choi, & G.
McPhan (Eds.). Improving equity in rural education: Proceedings of the International Symposium for Innovation in Rural Education (ISFIRE). (pp. 167-177). Armidale, NSW: University of New England.
Lyons, T., Cooksey, R., Panizzon, D., Parnell, A., Pegg, J. (2006). Science, ICT and mathematics
education in rural and regional Australia. The SiMERR National Survey Abridged Report of Findings. National Centre of Science, ICT and Mathematics Education for Rural and Regional Australia, University of New England. Retrieved from: https://simerr.une.edu.au/pages/projects/1nationalsurvey/Abridged%20report/Abridged_Full.pdf
Maxwell, T. W., Smith, H., Baxter, D., Boyd, J., Harrington, I., Jenkins, K., ... & Tamatea, L. (2006).
Migrating to the Classroom: Online Support for the 2005 Beginning Teacher Alumni of UNE. Final Report for the Higher Education Innovation Program of the Education Alumni Support Project. Armidale: University of New England. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280125852_Migrating_to_the_Classroom_Online_Support_for_the_2005_Beginning_Teacher_Alumni_of_UNE
McConaghy, C. (2006a). Schooling out of place. Discourse: studies in the cultural politics of
education, 27(3), 325-339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01596300600838777
McConaghy, C. (2006b). Transience and teaching: Place and the new psychoanalytic sociologies
of teaching. Education in Rural Australia, 16(2), 47-55.
McConaghy, C. (2008). Situating Pedagogies: Rural Pedagogy as Social Action. In B. Green (Ed.),
Spaces & Places: The NSW Rural [Teacher] Education Project (pp. 299-338). Wagga Wagga: Centre for Information Studies, Charles Sturt University.
McConaghy, C., Graham, L., Bloomfield, D., Miller, J., Paterson, D., Lloyd, L. & Noone, G. (2006).
Bush Tracks: Exploring Rural Teaching Transitions. Education in Rural Australia, 16 (2), 3-11.
McCurdy, R., & McConnell, P. (2009). It takes a whole village to raise a child. In State Government
Victoria, Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, Willing to Lead (pp. 41-54). Victoria: School Workforce Reform and School Improvement Division, Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/staffdev/schlead/Willing_to_Lead/Willing_to_Lead_-_Leading_Across_Effective_Schools.pdf
McKenzie, P., Weldon. P., Rowley, G., Murphy, M., & McMillan., J. (2014). Staff in Australia's
schools 2013: Main report on the survey. Australian Council for Educational Research. Retrieved from: https://docs.education.gov.au/system/files/doc/other/sias_2013_main_report.pdf
Miller, J., & Graham, G. (2015). Taking the Bush Track Home. In L. Graham & J. Miller (Eds.), Bush
Tracks: The Opportunities and Challenges of Rural Teaching and Leadership (pp. 157-163). The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
Miller, J., Graham, L., & Paterson, D. (2006). Bush tracks: Viewing teachers' experiences of
leadership in rural schools through a contextual lens. Education in Rural Australia, 16(2), 31–45.
Miller, J., Graham, L., Al-Awiwe, A. A. (2014). Fast track, bush track: Late career female rural
school leaders taking the slow road. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 24(1), 91-102.
Miller, J., Graham, L., Al-Awiwe, A. A. (2015). Late-career women leaders in rural schools. In L.
Graham & J. Miller (Eds.), Bush Tracks: The Opportunities and Challenges of Rural Teaching and Leadership (pp. 105-118). The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
Moore, V., & Watty, B. (2009). Watching to learn, learning to watch: introducing peer observation
across the Dookie Cluster, In State Government Victoria, Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, Willing to Lead (pp. 27-40). Victoria: School Workforce Reform and School Improvement Division, Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/staffdev/schlead/Willing_to_Lead/Willing_to_Lead_-_Leading_Across_Effective_Schools.pdf
Noone, G. (2015) Imagining a teacher-place assemblage. In L. Graham & J. Miller (Eds.), Bush
Tracks: The Opportunities and Challenges of Rural Teaching and Leadership (pp. 57-78). The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
Novak, M., Green, B., & Gottschall, K. (2008). Situated Leadership and Rural Schooling: Leading
Learning Locally? In B. Green (Ed.), Spaces & Places: The NSW Rural [Teacher] Education Project (pp. 339-364). Wagga Wagga: Centre for Information Studies, Charles Sturt University.
Nye, A. (2014). Connections of place and generation: Women teachers in rural schools in NSW.
Australian and International Journal of Rural Education 24(3), 69-81.
Page, J. (2006). Teaching in rural and remote schools: implications for pre-service teacher
preparation pedagogies of place and their implication for pre-service teacher preparation. Education in Rural Australia, 16(1): 47–63.
Panizzon D., & Pegg, J. (2007a). Chasms in student achievement: Exploring the rural-metropolitan
divide. Education in Rural Australia, 17(2), 3-20.
Panizzon, D., & Pegg, J. (2007b). Enhancing student achievement in mathematics: Identifying the needs of rural and regional teachers in Australia. In J. Watson, & K. Beswick (Eds.), Mathematics: Essential research, essential practice, Proceedings of the 30th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (pp. 581-590). Adelaide, SA: MERGA.
Panizzon, D., Westwell, M., & Elliott, K. (2009). Who’s teaching science in South Australia? Flinders
Centre for Science Education in the 21st Century. Retrieved from: http://www.flinders.edu.au/science-21-files/briefings/whosteachingscienceSA.pdf
Plunkett, M., & Dyson, M. (2011). Becoming a teacher and staying one: Examining the complex
ecologies associated with educating and retaining new teachers in rural Australia? Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(1), 32-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2011v36n1.3
Redmond, P. (2015a). Discipline specific online mentoring for secondary pre-service
teachers. Computers & Education, 90, 95-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2011v36n1.3
Redmond, P. (2015b). Online mentoring for secondary pre-service teachers in regional, rural or
remote locations. In L. Liu, & D. C. Gibson (Eds.), Research highlights in technology and teacher education 2015. (pp. 145-151). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE) Waynesville, NC, United States.
Reid, J. A., Green, B., Cooper, M., Hastings, W., Lock, G., & White, S. (2010). Regenerating Rural
Social Space? Teacher Education for Rural—Regional Sustainability. Australian Journal of Education, 54(3), 262-276.
Richards, S. (2012). Coast to country: An initiative aimed at changing pre-service teachers'
perceptions of teaching in rural and remote locations. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 22(2), 53-63.
Roberts, P. (2004). Staffing an Empty Schoolhouse: Attracting and retaining teachers in rural,
remote and isolated communities (publication version). Sydney, NSW. New South Wales Teachers Federation.
Ryan, J., Jones, M., & Walta, C. (2012). Creating a sustainable and supportive teaching practicum
in rural and regional locations. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 22(1), 57-72.
Sayce, D., & Lavery, S. D. (2013, August). Beginning the school principalship in rural and remote
Catholic Schools in Western Australia. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Catholic Educational Leadership. Sydney, Australia.
Sharplin, E. (2002). Rural retreat or outback hell: expectations of rural and remote teaching.
Issues in Educational Research 12 (1), 49-63.
Sharplin, E. (2009a). Getting them out there: A rural education field trip. In T. Lyons, J-L Choi, & G.
McPhan (Eds.). Improving equity in rural education: Proceedings of the International Symposium for Innovation in Rural Education (ISFIRE). (pp. 215-224). Armidale, NSW: University of New England.
Sharplin, E. (2009b). Quality of worklife for rural and remote teachers: a model of protective and
risk factors. In T. Lyons, J-L Choi, & G. McPhan (Eds.). Improving equity in rural education: Proceedings of the International Symposium for Innovation in Rural Education (ISFIRE). (pp. 205-214). Armidale, NSW: University of New England.
Sharplin, E. (2010). A taste of country: A pre-service teacher rural field trip. Education in Rural
Australia, 20(1), 17–27.
Sharplin, E. (2014). Reconceptualising out-of-field teaching: Experiences of rural teachers in
Western Australia. Educational Research, 56(1), 97-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00131881.2013.874160
Sharplin, E., O’Neill, M., Chapman A. (2009 November-December). Processes of adaption to
multiple environments for rural and remote teachers. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Canberra.
Sharplin, E., O’Neill, M., Chapman, A. (2011). Coping strategies for adaptation to new teacher
appointments: Intervention for retention. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27, 136-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2010.07.010
Starr, K. (2009). Mentoring and Leading Across Effective Small Schools: the perspectives of
‘critical friends’, In State Government Victoria, Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, Willing to Lead (pp. 27-40). Victoria: School Workforce Reform and School Improvement Division, Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/staffdev/schlead/Willing_to_Lead/Willing_to_Lead_-_Leading_Across_Effective_Schools.pdf
Starr, K. (2016). Small rural school leadership: Creating opportunities through collaboration. In S.
Clarke, & T. O’Donoghue (Eds.), School Leadership in Diverse Contexts (pp. 43-56). Abingdon, England: Routledge.
Starr, K., & White, S. (2008). The small school principalship: Key challenges and cross-school
responses. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 23(5), 1-12. Retrieved from: http://jrre.vmhost.psu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/23-5.pdf
Somerville, M., & Rennie, J. (2012). Mobilising community? Place, identity formation and new
teachers' learning. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 33(2), 193-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01596306.2012.666075
Somerville, M., Plunkett, M. & Dyson, M. (2010). New teachers learning in rural and regional
Australia. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 38(1), 1-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13598660903474130
Trinidad, S., Broadley, T., Terry, E., Boyd, D., Lock, G., Byrne, M. & Ledger, S. (2012). Going bush:
Preparing pre-service teachers to teach in regional Western Australia. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 22(1), 39.
Trinidad, S., Broadley, T., Terry, E., Boyd, D., Lock, G., Sharplin E., & Ledger, S. (2013). Regional
resilience: Pre-service teacher preparation to teach in the bush. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education. 23(2), 45-52.
Trinidad, S., Sharplin, E., Ledger, S., Broadley, T. (2014). Connecting for Innovation: Four
Universities Collaboratively Preparing Pre-service Teachers to Teach in Rural and Remote Western Australia. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 29(2), 1-13.
Trinidad, S., Sharplin, E., Lock, G., Ledger, S., Boyd D., & Terry, E. (2011). Developing strategies at
the pre-service level to address critical teacher attraction and retention issues in Australian rural, regional and remote schools. Education in Rural Australia, 21(1), 111-120.

Walker-Gibbs, B., Ludecke, M., & Kline, J. (2015). Pedagogy of the Rural: implications of size on
conceptualisations of rural. International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning, 10(1), 81-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22040552.2015.1086292
Wallace, A., & Boylan, C. (2009). Reviewing the rural lens in education policy and practice.
Education in Rural Australia, 19(2), 23-30.
Wallace, A., Boylan, C., Mitchell, R., Streckfus, A. (2008). Conceptualising School-Community
Relationships in Inland Rural NSW. In B. Green (Ed.), Spaces & Places: The NSW Rural [Teacher] Education Project (pp. 263-298). Wagga Wagga: Centre for Information Studies, Charles Sturt University.
White, S. (2006). Preparing pre-service teachers for rural teaching: A new approach. International
Journal of Practical Experiences in Professional Education, 9(1),14-19.
White, S. (2009). Learning to lead by listening to rural stories, In State Government Victoria,
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, Willing to Lead (pp. 27-40). Victoria: School Workforce Reform and School Improvement Division, Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/staffdev/schlead/Willing_to_Lead/Willing_to_Lead_-_Leading_Across_Effective_Schools.pdf
White, S. (2011). Preparing teachers for rural and regional settings: the RRRTEC project. The
Curriculum and Leadership Journal, 9(20). Retrieved from: http://www.curriculum.edu.au/leader/the_rrrtec_project,33881.html?issueID=12471
White, S. (2015). Extending the knowledge base for (rural) teacher educators. Australian and
International Journal of Rural Education, 25(3), 50-61.
White, S., Green, B., Reid, J., Lock, G., Hastings, W., Cooper, M. (2008, July). Teacher Education for
rural communities: A focus on incentives. Paper presented at the ‘Teacher Educators at work: What works and where is the evidence?’ The annual conference of the Australian Teacher Education Association (ATEA), Maroochydore.
White, S., & Kline, J. (2012a). Developing a rural teacher education curriculum package. Rural
Educator: Journal for Rural and Small Schools, 33(2), 36-42.
White, S., & Kline, J. (2012b). Renewing rural and regional teacher education curriculum, final report
2012. Australian Learning and Teaching Council. Retrieved from: http://www.rrrtec.net.au/PDFs/PP9-1320%20Deakin%20White%20Final%20Report%202012%5B1%5D.pdf
White, S., Lock, G., Hastings, W., Cooper, M., Reid, J. A., & Green, B. (2011). Investing in
sustainable and resilient rural social space: lessons for teacher education. Education in Rural Australia, 21(1), 67-78.
White, S., Lock, G., Hastings, W., Reid, J. A., Green, B., & Cooper, M. (2009, June-July). Supporting
Beginning Rural Teachers: Lessons from Successful Schools. Paper presented at ‘Teacher education crossing borders: Cultures, contexts, communities and curriculum’ The annual conference of the Australian Teacher Education Association (ATEA), Albury.
White, S., & Reid, J-A. (2008). Placing teachers? Sustaining rural schooling through place-
consciousness in teacher education. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 23(7), 1-11. Retrieved from: http://jrre.vmhost.psu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/23-7.pdf
Wildy, H., & Clarke, S. (2005). Leading the small rural school: The case of the novice principal.
Leading & Managing, 11(1), 43-56.
Wildy, H. & Clarke, S. (2009). Tales from the outback: Leading in isolated circumstances.
International Studies in Educational Administration, 37(1), 29-42.
Wildy, H., & Clarke, S. (2011). At the edge of the silent centre: An Australian principal’s reflections
on leading an isolated school. In M. Cowie (Ed.), New Primary Leaders: International Perspectives (pp. 19-30). London: Continuum.
Wildy, H., & Clarke, S. (2012). Leading a small remote school: In the face of a culture of
acceptance. International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, 40(1), 63-74.
Wildy, H., Siguroardottir, S. M., & Faulkner, R. (2014). Leading the small rural school in Iceland &
Australia: Building leadership capacity. Educational Management, Administration & Leadership, 42(4s), 104-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1741143213513188
Young, J., & Kennedy, J. (2011, November-December). Facing the Challenge of Retaining New
Teachers in Rural and Remote Settings- A Report of Two Case Studies using a Community-based Mentoring Model in Queensland, Australia. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Hobart.
Published
2017-08-20
Section
JOURNAL PAPERS