Chinese Pre-service Teachers’ Perceptions of Teaching Practicum under Contrasting Contexts: Implications for Rural Teacher Preparation
Globally, much of the criticism has been directed at the quality of university-based teacher education in preparing teachers for impoverished schools. Drawing on data from an incentive program of teacher education in China, the authors comparatively investigated the field experiences of pre-service teachers from contrasting setting (urban and rural schools). Under the perspective of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy, the study focused on participants’ perception of teaching practicum and how well the program had prepared them for rural schools. The particular attention has been paid to whether the less-successful teaching practicum, such as lack of knowledge and skills of instructing diverse students, influenced pre-service teachers’ commitment to teach in rural schools. We found pre-service teachers who taught in urban schools reported more positive field experiences and higher teaching commitment than those in rural places. The rural per-service teachers have reported more difficulties in linking their college courses with actual practice and settings. The policy implications for rural teacher preparation have been discussed as well.
Aydin, Y. C. & Hoy, A. W. (2005). What predicts student teacher self-efficacy? Academic Exchange Quarterly, 9(4), 123-128.
Bandura, A. (1986). The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4(3), 359-373.
Buehler, J., Ruggles-Gere, A., Dallavis, C. & Shaw-Haviland, V. (2009). Normalizing the fraughtness: How emotion, race, and school context complicate cultural competence. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(4), 408-418.
Chapman, D. W. (1984). Teacher retention: The test of a model. American Educational Research Journal, 21(3), 645-658.
Chang, S., Anagnostopoulos, D. & Omae, H. (2011). The multidimensionality of multicultural service learning: The variable effects of social identity, context and pedagogy on pre service teachers’ learning. Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal on Research and Studies, 27(7), 1078-1089.
Chapman, D. W. & Green, M. S. (1986). Teacher retention: A further examination. Journal of Educational Research, 79, 273-279.
Chuanyou, B. (2006). Policies for compulsory education disparity between urban and rural areas in China. Frontiers of Education in China, 1(1), 40-55.
Coladarci, T. (1992). Teachers' sense of efficacy and commitment to teaching. Journal of Experimental Education, 60, 323-337.
Darling-Hammond, L. (2017). Teacher education around the world: What can we learn from international practice? European Journal of Teacher Education, 1-19.
Darling-Hammond, L., Chung, R. & Frelow, F. (2002). Variation in teacher preparation: How well do different pathways prepare teachers to teach? Journal of Teacher Education, 53(4), 286-302.
English, W. D. & Lewison, D. M. (1979). Marketing internship programs: Striking out in the academic ballgame. Journal of Marketing Education, 1(2), 48-52.
Field, A. P. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. London, England: Sage.
Frankenberg, E., Taylor, A. & Merseth, K. (2010). Walking the walk: Teacher candidates’ professed commitment to urban teaching and their subsequent career decisions. Urban Education, 45, 312-346.
Goldhaber, D., Theobald, R. & Tien, C. (2015). The theoretical and empirical arguments for diversifying the teacher workforce: A review of the evidence (WP #2015-9). Retrieved from The Center for Education Data & Research website: http://www.cedr.us/papers/working/CEDR%20WP%202015-9.pdf
Green, B., & Reid, J. (2004). Teacher education for rural–regional sustainability: Changing agendas, challenging futures, chasing chimeras? Asia‐Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 32(3), 255-273.
Guanghuai, F., Lu, Y. & Yiyin, L. (2015). Teacher education policy research in China: A decade review and reflection. Higher Education of Social Science, 8(4).
Hagin, D. A. (2012). Free teacher education policy implementation in china (Order No. 3521483). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global (1034575265). Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.tamu.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.tamu.edu/docview/1034575265?accountid=7082
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E. & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Hastings, W. (2004). Emotions and the practicum: The cooperating teachers' perspective. Teachers and Teaching, 10, 135-148.
Haynes, J. E. S., & Miller, J. A. (2016). Transitioning from university to teaching in schools located in rural and remote settings. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 26(2), 34-48.
Ingersoll, R., Merrill, L. & May, H. (2014). What are the effects of teacher education and preparation on beginning teacher attrition? Retrieved from CPRE Research Reports website: http://repository.upenn.edu/cpre_researchreports/78.
Ingersoll, R. M. & Strong, M. (2011). The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 81(2), 201-233.
Jehangir, R., Williams, R. & Jeske, J. (2012). The influence of multicultural learning communities on the intrapersonal development of first-generation college students. Journal of College Student Development, 53(2), 267-284.
Jolliffe, I. T. (2002). Principal component analysis (2nd ed). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, NY: Guilford.
Kumar, R. & Hamer, L. (2013). Preservice teachers’ attitudes and beliefs toward student diversity and proposed instructional practices: A sequential design study. Journal of Teacher Education, 64(2), 162-177.
LaBoskey, V. K. & Richert, A. E. (2002). Identifying good student teaching placements: A programmatic perspective. Teacher Education Quarterly, 29(2), 7-34.
Ladson-Billings, G. (2000). Fighting for our lives preparing teachers to teach African American students. Journal of Teacher Education, 51(3), 206-214.
Le Maistre, C., & Paré, A. (2010). Whatever it takes: How beginning teachers learn to survive. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(3), 559-564.
Leibold, J. & Chen, Y. (2014). Introduction: Minority education in china. Minority Education in China: Balancing Unity and Diversity in an Era of Critical Pluralism. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Levene, H. (1960). Robust tests for equality of variances. In I. Olkin, S. G. Ghurye, W. Hoeffding, W. G. Madow, & H. B. Mann (Eds.), Contributions to Probability and Statistics: Essays in Honor of Harold Hotelling (pp. 278–292). Menlo Park, CA: Stanford University Press.
Lijie, L., Fang, W., Yunpeng, M., Clarke, A. & Collins, J. (2016). Exploring Chinese teachers' commitment to being a cooperating teacher in a university-government-school initiative for rural practicum placements. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 36(sup1), 34-55.
Liu, E., Johnson, S. M. & Peske, H. G. (2004). New teachers and the Massachusetts signing bonus: The limits of inducements. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26(3), 217–236. Retrieved June 15, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/3699576.pdf
Luo, Z., & Mkandawire, M. T. (2015). Are fruits of free normal education policy real or mythical? A critical appraisal of the free teacher education policy meant to promote rural education in China. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 3(3), 13-22.
Maye, D. & Day, B. (2012). Teacher identities: The fingerprint of culturally relevant pedagogy for students at risk. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 78(2), 19-26.
Masinire, A. (2015). Recruiting and retaining teachers in rural schools in south africa: Insights from a rural teaching experience programme. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 25(1), 2-14.
Ministry of Education, (2007). Implementation measures of Free Teacher Education Policy enforced in normal universities under supervision of the Ministry of Education (in Chinese). http://news.xinhuanet.com/edu/2007-05/14/content_6098291.htm.
Morrison, K. A., Robbins, H. H. & Rose, D. G. (2008). Operationalizing culturally relevant pedagogy: A synthesis of classroom-based research. Equity & Excellence in Education, 41(4), 433-452.
Muthén, L.K. & Muthén, B. O. (1998), Mplus User’s Guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Ng, W., Nicholas, H. & Williams, A. (2010). School experience influences on pre-service teachers' evolving beliefs about effective teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(2), 278-289.
Peng, W. J., McNess, E. M., Thomas, S. M., Wu, X. R., Zhang, C., Li, J. Z. & Tian, H. S. (2014). Emerging perceptions of teacher quality and teacher development in China. International Journal of Educational Development, 34, 77-89.
Qian, X. & Smyth. R. (2008). Measuring regional inequality of education in China: Widening coast–inland gap or widening rural–urban gap? Journal of International Development, 20(2), 132-144.
Qiquan, Z. (2008). Research on innovating teacher education institution in China [J]. Peking University Education Review, 3, 012.
Ronfeldt, M. (2012). Where should student teachers learn to teach? Effects of field placement school characteristics on teacher retention and effectiveness. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysts, 34(1), 3-26.
Rosenholtz, S. J. (1989). Teachers’ workplace: The social organization of schools. White Plains, NY: Longman.
Rots, I., Aelterman, A., Vlerick, P. & Vermeulen, K. (2007). Teacher education, graduates’ teaching commitment and entrance into the teaching profession. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23(5), 543-556.
Sang, G., Valcke, M., van Braak, J. & Tondeur, J. (2009). Investigating teachers' educational beliefs in Chinese primary schools: Socioeconomic and geographical perspectives. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 37(4), 363-377.
Settlage, J., Southerland, S. & Smith, L.Ceglie. R. (2009). Constructing a doubt-free teaching self: Self-efficacy, teacher identity, and science instruction within diverse settings. Journal of Research in Science of Teaching, 46(1), 102-125.
Stachowski, L. L. & Frey, C. J. (2003). Lessons learned in Navajoland: Student teachers reflect on professional and cultural learning in reservation schools and communities. Action in Teacher Education, 25(3), 38.
Shah, A. (2016). Fiscal policies for coordinated urban-rural development and their relevance for china. Public Finance and Management, 16(1), 51.
Siebert, C. J., Clark, A., Kilbridge, A. & Peterson, H. (2006). When student teachers struggle or fail: mentor-teachers' perspectives. Education, 126, 409-422.
Smith, M. D. & Glenn, T. L. (2016). “Reflecting on the reflection…”: Exploring teacher candidates' assumptions of self and others through facilitated reflection. The Teacher Educator, 51(4), 314-334.
Siwatu, K. (2011). Pre-service teachers’ culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy forming experiences: A mixed methods study. The Journal of Educational Research, 104, 360-369.
Sinclair, C. (2008). Initial and changing student teacher motivation and commitment to teaching. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 36(2), 79-104.
Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.
Tarman, B. (2012). Prospective teachers' beliefs and perceptions about teaching as a profession. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 12(3), 1964-1973.
Valli, L. (1995). The dilemma of race: Learning to be color blind and color conscious. Journal of Teacher Education, 46(2), 120–129.
Waddell, J. H. (2013). Working with families in urban teacher education: A critical need for all students. The Teacher Educator, 48(4), 276-295.
Walker-Dalhouse, D. & Dalhouse, A. D. (2006). Investigating white preservice teachers' beliefs about teaching in culturally diverse classrooms. Negro Educational Review, 57(1/2), 69-84.
Wang, D. & Gao, M. (2013). Educational equality or social mobility: The value conflict between preservice teachers and the free teacher education program in China. Teaching and Teacher Education, 32, 66-74.
Wang, J. & Li, Y. (2008). Research on the quality of compulsory education teaching in western rural schools. Educational Research, 2, 21-31.
Wang, J. & Paine, L. W. (2001). Mentoring as assisted performance: A pair of Chinese teachers working together. The Elementary School Journal, 102(2), 157-181.
Ware, H. W. & Kitsantas, A. (2011). Predicting teacher commitment using principal and teacher efficacy variables: An HLM approach. The Journal of Educational Research, 104, 183–193.
Weisman, E. M. & Hansen, L. E. (2008). Student teaching in urban and suburban schools perspectives of Latino preservice teachers. Urban Education, 43(6), 653-670.
Wiggins, R. A., Follo, E. J. & Eberly, M. B. (2007). The impact of a field immersion program on pre-service teachers’ attitudes toward teaching in culturally diverse classrooms. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 653-663.
Yang, Y. Wang, Z. (2007). Free normal education: policy ideals, real-world conflicts, and their solutions. Tsinghua Journal of Education, 28(3), pp. 49–53.
You, Z. & Jia, F. (2008). Do they learn differently? An investigation of the pre-service teachers from US and china. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(4), 836-845.
Zeichner, K. (2010). Rethinking the connections between campus courses and field experiences in college-and university-based teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(1-2), 89-99.
Zhang J. B. (1995). Teacher preparation in China. In J. Lane (Ed.,pp. 148-156), Ferment in Education: A Look Abroad. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Manuscripts submitted for publication should not have been published or submitted for publication elsewhere. It is the responsibility of authors to secure release of any copyright materials included in their manuscripts, and to provide written evidence of this to the editors. If accepted and published, papers become the copyright of the Australian and International Journal of Rural Education.
Papers are accepted on the understanding that they are subject to editorial revision. The Editorial Committee cannot guarantee that all contributions will be published nor give definite dates of publication. However, contributors will be advised if their papers are not accepted or if there will be a long publication delay.